The third of three special Shabbatot before Tish’ah be-Av, known as the Three of Rebuke (Telata de-Puranuta), when the haftarah read is Chazon Yeshayahu, Yeshayahu 1:1–27.
A special Shabbat and the last of the Four Parshiyyot, Shabbat ha-Chodesh – is the Shabbat before on on the first of Nisan. The maftir comes from Bo, describing the first month of the year (Chodesh Nisan); the hatarah is Yechezkel 45:16-46:18. It is distinct from Shabbat Rosh Chodesh. Rarely, when one of the special…
Shabbat ha-Gadol is the Shabbat before Pesach, during which it is traditional for the rabbi to deliver a special derash (sermon). The haftarah is Malakhi 3:4-24.
The Shabbat immediately preceding Rosh Chodesh is called Shabbat Machar Chodesh and the haftarah is 1 Shemuel 20:18-42. It is distinct from Shabbat Rosh Chodesh, Shabbat Mevarkhim, and Shabbat ha-Chodesh.
The Shabbat before a week in which Rosh Chodesh falls is called Shabbat Mevarkhim and Birkat ha-Chodesh is said. It is distinct from Shabbat Rosh Chodesh, Shabbat Machar Chodesh, and Shabbat ha-Chodesh.
One of the special Shabbatot, Shabbat Nachamu is the first Shabbat following Tish’ah Be-Av, and the first of the Seven Shabbatot of Consolation (Shev de-Nechamata) leading up to Rosh ha-Shannah. The haftarah, from which it gets its name, is Nachamu, Nachamu Ami, Yeshayahu 40:1-26.
A special Shabbat and the third of the Four Parshiyyot, Shabbat Parah is the Shabbat before Shabbat ha-Chodesh. The maftir comes from Chukkat, in which the ritual of the parah adumah (red heifer) is described; the haftarah is Yechezkel 36:16-38.
When Shabbat coincides with Rosh Chodesh, a different haftarah is read: Yeshayahu 66:1-24, and the maftir is BeMidbar 28:9-15. It is distinct from Shabbat Machar Chodesh and Shabbat Mevarkhim, as well as Shabbat ha-Chodesh.
A special Shabbat and the first of the Four Parshiyyot, Shabbat Shekalim occurs before or on Rosh Chodesh Adar (Adar Bet in leap years). The special maftir comes from parashat Ki Tissa that describes the half-shekel tax, hence its name; the haftarah is 2 Melakhim 12:1-17.
Shabbat Shirah, one of the special Shabbatot of the year, is the Shabbat on which parashat Beshalach, including the Song of the Sea (Shirat ha-Yam), is read. The haftarah is Shoftim 4:4-5:31, which includes the Song of Devorah.