Knowledgebase

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  • Talmud

    Talmud

    Commonly refers to the Talmud Bavli, meaning the Mishnah (redacted Oral Law) with the Gemara (commentary) as redacted in Bavel (Babylon). It is also called by the acronym Shas, referring to the six orders (sedarim, sing. seder) into which the tractates (massekhtot, sing. massekhet) of the Mishnah and Gemara on it are divided. Today, there…

  • Tannaitic

    Tannaitic

    Belonging to the era of the Tannaim (sing. Tanna – תנא), the rabbis who formulated and transmitted the Oral Law that became the Mishnah in the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. There are seven generations of Tannaim.

  • The Rosh

    The Rosh

    ר’ אשר בן יחיאל – רא”ש – R. Asher b. Yechiel (c. 1250-1327) – Primarily known for his responsa, Rosh was already an acknowledged leader of German Jewry when he fled persecution, settling in Toledo, Castile (in present-day Spain). The Rosh’s immigration from Ashkenaz to Sefarad was impactful in bringing knowledge and methods of learning…

  • Tzarfat

    Tzarfat

    צרפת – The Jewish community of northern France in the medieval period, part of greater Ashkenaz but known as Tzarfat in its own right. The name is taken from Ovadia 1:20, from which the term Sefarad is also drawn. With centers in Paris, Troyes, Rouen, Ramerupt, Évreux, Corbeil, Sens, Dampierre, Coucy, and other towns, this…