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Responsa

Sheelot u-teshuvot – shu”t – שאלות ותשובות – שו”ת – A major genre of halachic literature recording questions (sheelot) and answers (teshuvot) that give pesak halakhah (practical halakhic rulings). There is a voluminous literature of responsa beginning in the period of the Geonim and continuing till today. Earlier collections of responsa may have details removed or abbreviated, and may be anonymous or attributed to a given posek (decisor). Responsa (sing. responsum) functions as case law in halachic decision making.

Selected responsa of the Rishonim

  • Shu”t ha-Rif – R. Yitzhak al-Fasi (Rif)
  • Teshuvot Rashi – R. Shelomo b. Yitzhak (Rashi) – these are preserved not in book form but in other texts, especially Machzor Vitry
  • Sefer ha-Yashar (section of teshuvot) – Rabbenu Tam
  • Teshuvot Rambam – R. Moshe b. Maimon (Rambam/Maimonides) – also collected from various sources
  • Temim De’im – R. Avraham b. David of Posquières, (southern) France (Raavad)
  • Teshuvot Maharam of Rothenberg – R. Meir b. Barukh (Maharam) of Rothenberg, Germany
  • Teshuvot ha-Rosh – R. Asher b. Yechiel
  • Teshuvot ha-Rashba – R. Shelomo b. Avraham Ibn Adret
  • Teshuvot ha-Ritva – R. Yom-Tov Ishbili (Asvili)
  • Shu”t ha-Ran – R. Nissim b. Reuven of Girona
  • Sefer Tashbetz – R. Shim’on b. Tzemach Duran (Rashbatz)
  • Teshuvot Maharil – R. Ya’akov b. Moshe Moelin
  • Terumat ha-Deshen – R. Yisrael Isserlein

Selected responsa of the Acharonim

  • Teshuvot Radbaz – R. David Ibn Abi Zimra
  • Teshuvot Maharshal – R. Shelomo Luria
  • Teshuvot Rema – R. Moshe Isserles
  • Bayit Chadash (Bach) – R. Yoel Sirkis
  • Chavot Yair – R. Yair Bacharach
  • Chacham Tzevi – R. Tzvi Ashkenazi
  • Noda’ bi-Yehudah – R. Yechezkel Landau
  • Shu”t Chatam Sofer – R. Moshe Schreiber
  • Teshuvot Maharam Schick – R. Moshe Schick
  • Torah Li-Shemah – Ben Ish Chai
  • Mishpat Kohen, Da’at Kohen – Rav Kook (Raayah)
  • Mishpatei Uziel – Ben-Zion Meir Chai Uziel
  • Mekor Chayyim – R. Chayyim David Halevi
  • Iggerot Moshe – R. Moshe Feinstein
  • Tzitz Eliezer – R. Eliezer Waldenberg
  • Minchat Yitzhak – R. Yitzhok Ya’akov Weiss
  • Yabi’a Omer and Yechaveh Da’at – R. Ovadiah Yosef

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